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Null Has Value, Too

If you want to build JSON structures in your programming language, you need a data model. For .Net, that model exists in the System.Text.Json.Nodes namespace as JsonNode and its derived types, JsonObject, JsonArray, and JsonValue. Importantly, you need to make a decision of how to represent JSON null.

The designers of JsonNode decided to make JSON null equivalent to .Net null. This post will explore why I think that was a poor decision.

Much of the content of this post comes from my experience with Manatee.Json and conversations with the .Net engineers on this very topic.

The structure of JSON

To begin, I’d like to cover how JSON is described in its specification. Particularly, I’d like to look at the data model.

There are two structured types, objects and arrays, that are comprised of a set of primitives: numbers, strings, and the literals, true, false, and null.

I’d like to focus on those literals. The way they’re defined, they’re just names, symbols without any inherent value. Often we relate true and false to a boolean type because the names imply that association, but technically they hold no such meaning. Similarly, null is often used to mean “no value,” but that’s not the case. In JSON, “no value” is represented by simply not existing. In JSON, null is a value.

.Net’s data model

The data model that JsonNode and family give us represents JSON null as .Net null. Because of this, you get a fairly convenient API. If you want to represent an object with a null under the foo key, you do this:

var node = new JsonObject
    ["foo"] = null

Pretty straightforward and easy to use, right?

Similarly, you get null when querying the object.

var valueAtFoo = node["foo"];

It all still works.

It begins to go wrong

One of the features of the JsonNode API is that you can find out where in the JSON structure a particular value exists by calling its .GetPath() method. This method returns a JSON Path (BTW, wrong construct) that starts from the root JSON value and leads to the value you have. That can be pretty handy.

Now, what happens when you use this method to find out where a null was? (Note that .GetPath() isn’t an extension method.)

var location = valueAtFoo.GetPath();

BOOM! Instant null reference exception.

Imagine you’re trying to protect against nulls in your JSON, so want to walk the structure and report any nulls that you find. You’ve managed to walk the structure, but when you find a null, now you can’t report where it was without manually keeping track of where you’ve been. .GetPath() is supposed to be able to report where a value is from the value itself, but now you don’t have a value.

Differentiating null from “missing”

Now let’s say that we want to check our object for a bar property.

var barValue = node["bar"];

Most developers would expect that this, like any other dictionary (JsonObject does implement IDictionary<string, JsonValue>), would throw a KeyNotFoundException.

But it doesn’t. It returns null for missing keys.

So now, although we know it’s absolutely not correct, this holds:

Assert.AreEqual(node["foo"], node["bar"]);

So how are we supposed to determine whether a key exists and holds a null or a key just doesn’t exist? We have to use .TryGetPropertyValue() or .ContainsKey(). These will return true if the key exists and false if it doesn’t. That means we can’t use the nice indexer syntax; we have to use a clunky method.

if (node.TryGetPropertyValue("foo", out valueAtFoo))
    // node exists
    // node doesn't exist

And for both cases, valueAtFoo still comes out as null.

Other odd side effects

This also has an impact on how developers write their code. If I want to write a method that returns a JsonNode and I need to also communicate the presence of a null node, then I’m forced to write a Try-pattern method.

public bool TryQuery(JsonNode? node, out JsonNode? result) { ... }

instead of

public JsonNode? Query(JsonNode? node) { ... }

Lastly, if I have nullable reference types enabled, then I have to have JsonNode? everywhere, even when it’s supposed to represent a legitimate value (i.e. null).

What’s the solution?

Linked above, I presented my proposal to the .Net team as a new JsonValue-derived type called JsonNull combined with a parsing/deserialization option to use this instead of .Net null. As of this writing the issue is still open. I don’t know if it’ll be accepted or not.

Ideally, I’d like to see a JsonValue that can represent JSON null without itself being null. Sadly, the design decision they’ve made means that changing anything to support an explicit representation for JSON null in this way would be a breaking change, and they’re (understandably) unwilling to do that.

Until my proposal is adopted, or in the event it’s rejected, I’ve created the JsonNull type in my Json.More.Net library that contains a single static property:

public static readonly JsonValue SignalNode = new JsonValue<JsonNull>();

Although it only partially solves the problem (it doesn’t work for parsing into JsonNode or deserialization), this can be used to communicate that the value exists and is null. I use it extensively in the library suite.


If you’re building a parser and data model for JSON and your language supports the concept of null, keep it separate from JSON null. On the surface, it may be convenient, but it’ll likely cause problems for someone.

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This post is licensed under CC BY 4.0 by the author.

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